The power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws began with a decision rendered on February 24, 1803 in Marbury v. Madison. Bitterness, recrimination, lying, back-stabbing, and threats characterized the election of 1800 between former best friends and nonpareil Founding Fathers, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. The candidates themselves perched above all the mudslinging during the campaign, remaining at home and waiting for the results, while their supporters did all the dirty work. When the results were in, the incumbent, Adams, who lost the election, swiftly created new federal judgeships and began filling them with Federalist partisans. He thus hoped to extend his party’s power through the judicial branch into the uncertain political future. They became known as the “midnight judges” since they were appointed mere days and hours before the inauguration of Jefferson.