The Free-State advocates in Kansas, entering by wagon train loads from New England, New York, and Ohio, established strongholds in Lawrence and Topeka. The Slave-State advocates, mostly from the adjacent State of Missouri, held sway in Lecompton and scattered towns and farms around the territory. On May 21, 1856, pro-slavery settlers, led by a Federal Marshall and the Sheriff of Douglas County, who had earlier been shot in Lawrence trying to serve warrants, returned to that town, wrecked two abolitionist newspapers and burned down the Free-State Hotel. Partly in retaliation, partly in a previously decided commitment to “direct action,” John Brown, his sons and several other anti-slavery settlers set out in the dead of night on May 24, armed with pistols, rifles and swords, to visit the homes of men they suspected of pro-slavery sympathies. They descended on the homes along Pottawattamie Creek, hauling fathers and sons from their beds and hacking them to pieces with swords, while their women folk screamed and begged for mercy. Before the new day dawned, they had murdered five men from three different families and set fire to a civil war in Kansas that would not really end until 1865. Brown’s gang fought several more battles in Kansas before fleeing eastward with a price on their heads by the territorial government.