“Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand.” —Ephesians 6:13
James Guthrie Arrested for Treason,
February 19, 1661
y the 17th century, every country in Europe possessed a state church to which everyone in their respective jurisdictions, theoretically, belonged. France, half the Germanic states, Austria, Spain, Poland, half of Switzerland, and Italy all remained in the fold of the Roman Catholic Church, and acknowledged the Pope in Rome as Christ’s vicar on earth. About half of the German states identified as Lutheran, as did most of Scandinavia. England recognized their monarch as the head of the Church, following the disruption caused by King Henry VIII, a hundred years earlier. Scotland adhered to a presbyterian form of Church government, and boldly declared that Jesus Christ was the head of the Kirk. With the uniting of the crowns of England and Scotland in 1603, an 85-year struggle ensued over the ecclesiastical power of the English monarch and the Church of Scotland.
Scottish Presbyterian minister James Guthrie (c. 1612-1661)